That many of our core facility instruments are equipped for spectroscopy?

Spectroscopy can provide additional scientific information about a sample that may not be apparent from more routine imaging.

Spectral confocal microscopes can be used to determine the emission spectrum of fluorophores. If two fluorophores with previously measured spectra are in one sample and their emission spectra overlap, the overlapped spectra can be measured and then "unmixed" to determine the location of the individual fluorophores. (Instruments: Zeiss LSM880 inverted, Zeiss LSM 880 upright multiphoton, Nikon C1si, Leica SP5-II) In addition, the computer-controlled multiphoton laser on the Zeiss LSM 880 upright multiphoton can be scanned through a range of excitation wavelengths and the emission spectra measured.

Raman spectroscopy uses the inelastic scattering of monchromatic light to determine a molecular fingerprint in a sample. (Instruments: Renishaw Reflex, Hitachi S-3400N with Renishaw attachment)

Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis looks at the spectra of characteristic X-rays that are given off when an electron beam interacts with a sample. This type of elemental analysis requires an electron microscope. Small atomic number elements can be difficult to detect and this is somewhat dependent on the type of detector being used, the element of interest, and how abundant the element is in the sample. (Instruments: Hitachi S-3400NHitachi S-4800FEI Helios DualbeamHitachi HF5000FEI Inspec-SHitachi 3400NJEOL 6010LA)

Wavelength dispersive spectroscopy has better spectral resolution and sensitivity than energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, but it can be slower to perform. There is considerable expertise with this technique in LPL's Michael J. Drake Electron Microprobe Laboratory (two SEMs with multiple WDS detectors).

Electron energy loss spectroscopy looks at energy loss in electrons that are inelastically scattered. (Instrument: Hitachi HF5000).